White Papers

White Papers for free viewing

Note: These White Papers are free to view, but NOT free to use anywhere or be reproduced anywhere without explicit written permission by Abhisam Software. All rights reserved.

E-learning in the Process Industries :
Today's  process industries depend  heavily on employees who are trained in the right skills that they need to run the process plants and facilities. It is not for nothing that an ideal organization is also called The Learning Organization. With shortage of staff due to competitive pressures like downsizing and outsourcing, it is highly critical for any industry, to ensure that all of its employees are trained regularly. This is especially so, for businesses like the process industry (chemical processing, oil & gas production, refining, etc) who are heavily involved in engineering and technology, because of the rapid changes and advancements (and equally rapid obsolescence) in technology today. Training employees and other stakeholders in your industry, regularly, is a daunting task- if attempted to do with the traditional instructor led training.In this White Paper, we examine the issues involved and see how e-learning can offer a better solution......... Read More

How to make hazardous areas safer :
Hazardous Areas are typically found in large facilities like oil and offshore oil & gas platforms, oil refineries, chemical processing plants, tank farms, supertankers, other ships that carry petrochemical cargo and even places like grain silos, which have the risk of explosion or fire due to explosive mixtures of vapors or dusts. Hazardous Areas are also referred to as "Classified Locations" in North America.... Read More

Manage Hazardous Areas effectively by using Gas Monitors :
Hazardous areas are those locations that could have hazardous levels of explosive gas, vapor or dust mixtures present that could potentially ignite and cause fires or explosions. Such locations are normally found in oil & gas processing, chemical & petrochemical plants, shipping terminals, warehouses , aircraft fueling depots and similar locations. Electrical equipment that is to be installed in such locations is different from general purpose electrical equipment. It has to be explosion protected and certified for the area in which it is to be used.....Read More

An introduction to Toxic Gas Monitors :
Industrial plants that manufacture chemicals, fertilizers, petroleum products, or, facilities that produce oil & gas, have to handle various toxic chemicals in their day to day operations. Many of these toxic chemicals are in the form of gases or vapors. This article will give a brief overview of the various kinds of toxic gas detectors used to detect these poisonous materials. The example used will be a detector used to detect Hydrogen Sulfide gas, which is extremely toxic. These detectors are also called simply in industry as H2S detectors.....Read More

Intrinsic Safety- A brief outline of what it is :
Intrinsic Safety is a concept that came out of the mining industry in the early 19th century. At that time, a lot of mining accidents used to happen, many of which were traced to sparks that were generated by electrical circuits, that were used in mine lighting, signalling equipment and the like. These mining accidents were explosions resulting from the ignition of a mine gas called Firedamp (now known to be mainly composed of Methane). Due to the nature of the area (underground mines without ventilation), the gas used to be trapped inside and explode on contact with sparks.These mining explosions also had larger number of fatalities than say an above ground explosion would because of the confined area and the spreading of the fires and debris through underground passages.....Read More

Safety Instrumented Systems-Design Tips for Instrument & Control Engineers :
Modern chemical and hydrocarbon processing plants, oil & gas production facilities, power plants and other similar process plants all have some instrumentation and automation that ensures safety. These are known as Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS for short). These systems also are known by various other names such as Emergency Shutdown Systems (ESD for short), Safety Shutdown Systems, High Integrity Pressure Protection Systems (HIPPS) and so on. But all of them belong to the class of systems that are referred to as SIS....Read More

Integrated SIS DCS versus separate SIS and DCS-which one is better?
Modern industrial plants, oil & gas production facilities and other process plants all have some instrumentation and automation that ensures safety. These are known as Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS for short). These systems also are known by various other names such as Emergency Shutdown Systems (ESD for short), Safety Shutdown Systems, High Integrity Pressure Protection Systems (HIPPS) and so on. But all of them belong to the class of systems that are referred to as SIS...... Read More

High Integrity Pressure Protection Systems (HIPPS)
By now if you have been working in the process industries (like chemicals, oil & gas, petrochemicals and so on) for some time, you must have come across the term HIPPS. What is it? It is an acronym for High Integrity Pressure Protection Systems. These protection systems can be considered to a special subset of Safety Instrumented Systems (learn more about them here), that are meant to provide protection to pressurized equipment (tanks, pipelines and so on) against overpressure and consequent rupture......Read More

Decommissioning of chemical plants
The current economic and socio-political environment has made product lifecycles of chemicals much shorter. Also cost pressures, regulatory pressures, influence of non-state actors and changing market geographies, mean that manufacturing plants (examples are chemical process plants, Oil & Gas facilities, hydrocarbon processing plants and similar) need to be shuffled around, shut down or shifted at a much higher frequency than in earlier years. This article is a primer on how company managements can handle this without getting overwhelmed by the complexities of these projects. This can happen because quite a few company managements may be very skilled and versatile when setting up new plants, but may be inexperienced while doing the reverse.......Read More

Chemical Warehouse Safety
The business of a company depends upon the efficiency of manufacturing, supply chain and marketing and commercials. Supply chain efficiency depends on the effectiveness of logistics which includes warehouse operations. Warehouse operations can be effective provided warehouse design, layout, infrastructure, processes, staff and safety norms, transportation are appropriate to the requirements. For the chemical industry, warehousing is important because of the hazards of the materials being stored and handled....... Read More

An Introduction to Functional Safety & SIL (Safety Integrity Level)
This paper introduces the concepts of Functional Safety, Safety Integrity Level (SIL) and FSM (Functional Safety Management). Increasingly, Functional Safety is playing a key role in ensuring safety, preventing accidents as well as protection of people, assets and the environment. This white paper is intended to explain key concepts of Functional Safety to a technical audience, not necessarily having any experience in industrial safety........ Read More

Top 5 Myths about Industrial Cybersecurity
Control Systems (DCS/SCADA/PLC/SIS) are part of the critical infrastructure of any large industrial facility. Disruptions in these systems can therefore cause undesirable incidents that may not only affect the concerned industrial plant, but also impact people and the environment adversely. Hence cybersecurity of these systems should be the concern of all stakeholders associated with these systems. However, there are quite a few myths out there about Industrial Cybersecurity. This is an attempt to dispel some of those. ........ Read More

Big Data in the Process Industries
Big Data is a technology that is growing in importance in a wide variety of business sectors. It is about using special techniques on large amounts of data, to gain insights as well as actionable pieces of information. It’s importance can be gauged from the fact that it is considered as a second Industrial revolution, meaning that it will completely change how business is conducted, across a wide swathe of enterprises and markets. Until recently, Big data was mainly being used in Retail (both bricks and mortar as well as E-commerce), Online Advertising, Healthcare & Medical Insurance, Banking and Financial markets. However it is now being used also in the traditional industries such as Oil and Gas, for example in smart Reservoir Management for oilfields. In this White paper, we will examine how we can fruitfully use Big Data techniques in the downstream industries related to Oil and Gas as well. This includes industries such as Petrochemical & Chemical manufacturing, Pharmaceutical manufacturing, Power Generation and so on......... Read More

How to detect Stuxnet, Irongate and other similar malware in Automation & Control  Systems (PLC/DCS/SCADA) or Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS/ESD)
Stuxnet is arguably the world’s best known piece of Industrial Control System malware that was apparently used to sabotage nuclear plant equipment at Iran’s Natanz facility. The malware did damage to a lot of critical equipment in that facility. It did not just stay inside Natanz however, it spread everywhere and within a couple of years was found on hundreds of other Siemens control systems in Asia, Europe and elsewhere. After it was somewhat accidentally discovered, researchers analyzed it, guessed its objectives and revealed their findings to the world. They also put the code online (presumably for other security researchers to analyze and take steps to harden other control systems). The entire episode put Industrial Cyber security back into focus. Several cybersecurity experts and others were warning for quite a long time, about Industrial malware, but nobody in positions of authority seriously believed that something like this could actually happen in the real world. In that respect, Stuxnet was a big wake up call to everybody in the Industrial Instrumentation, Control Systems, Automation Systems, Safety Instrumented Systems and Functional Safety fraternity............. Read More

How the Internet of Things (IoT) can wreck the Internet itself
Unprecedented growth in devices that are connected to the internet, mainly due to the IoT phenomenon, is becoming the Achille's heel of the internet itself, as these things can be hacked into by malicious players and then used to launch attacks on the internet infrastructure, paralyzing critical online infrastructure such as banks, stock exchanges and public utilities. An urgent need exists to come up with globally mandated standards to improve IoT security to avoid these possible undesirable events.
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